# docs » hs.geometry

Utility object to represent points, sizes and rects in a bidimensional plane

An hs.geometry object can be:

• a point, or vector2, with `x` and `y` fields for its coordinates
• a size with `w` and `h` fields for width and height respectively
• a rect, which has both a point component for one of its corners, and a size component - so it has all 4 fields
• a unit rect, which is a rect with all fields between 0 and 1; it represents a "relative" rect within another (absolute) rect (e.g. a unit rect `x=0,y=0 , w=0.5,h=0.5` is the quarter portion closest to the origin); please note that hs.geometry makes no distinction internally between regular rects and unit rects; you can convert to and from as needed via the appropriate methods

You can create these objects in many different ways, via `my_obj=hs.geometry.new(...)` or simply `my_obj=hs.geometry(...)` by passing any of the following:

• 4 parameters `X,Y,W,H` for the respective fields - W and H, or X and Y, can be `nil`:
• `hs.geometry(X,Y)` creates a point
• `hs.geometry(nil,nil,W,H)` creates a size
• `hs.geometry(X,Y,W,H)` creates a rect given its width and height from a corner
• a table `{X,Y}` creates a point
• a table `{X,Y,W,H}` creates a rect
• a table `{x=X,y=Y,w=W,h=H}` creates a rect, or if you omit X and Y, or W and H, creates a size or a point respectively
• a table `{x1=X1,y1=Y1,x2=X2,y2=Y2}` creates a rect, where X1,Y1 and X2,Y2 are the coordinates of opposite corners
• a string:
• `"X Y"` or `"X,Y"` creates a point
• `"WxH"` or `"W*H"` creates a size
• `"X Y/WxH"` or `"X,Y W*H"` (or variations thereof) creates a rect given its width and height from a corner
• `"X1,Y1>X2,Y2"` or `"X1 Y1 X2 Y2"` (or variations thereof) creates a rect given two opposite corners
• `"[X,Y WxH]"` or `"[X1,Y1 X2,Y2]"` or variations (note the square brackets) creates a unit rect where x=X/100, y=Y/100, w=W/100, h=H/100
• a point and a size `"X Y","WxH"` or `{x=X,y=Y},{w=W,h=H}` create a rect

You can use any of these anywhere an hs.geometry object is expected in Hammerspoon; the constructor will be called for you.

### API Overview

• Constructors - API calls which return an object, typically one that offers API methods
• Fields - Variables which can only be accessed from an object returned by a constructor
• Methods - API calls which can only be made on an object returned by a constructor

### API Documentation

#### Constructors

##### copy
Signature `hs.geometry.copy(geom) -> hs.geometry object` Constructor Creates a copy of an hs.geometry object geom - an hs.geometry object to copy a newly created copy of the hs.geometry object extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 151
##### new
Signature `hs.geometry.new(...) -> hs.geometry object` Constructor Creates a new hs.geometry object ... - see the module description at the top a newly created hs.geometry object extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 141
##### point
Signature `hs.geometry.point(x, y) -> hs.geometry point` Constructor Convenience function for creating a point object x - A number containing the horizontal co-ordinate of the point y - A number containing the vertical co-ordinate of the point An hs.geometry point object extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 732
##### rect
Signature `hs.geometry.rect(x, y, w, h) -> hs.geometry rect` Constructor Convenience function for creating a rect-table x - A number containing the horizontal co-ordinate of the top-left point of the rect y - A number containing the vertical co-ordinate of the top-left point of the rect w - A number containing the width of the rect h - A number containing the height of the rect An hs.geometry rect object extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 717
##### size
Signature `hs.geometry.size(w, h) -> hs.geometry size` Constructor Convenience function for creating a size object w - A number containing a width h - A number containing a height An hs.geometry size object extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 744

#### Fields

##### area
Signature `hs.geometry.area` Field A number representing the area of this rect or size; changing it will scale the rect/size - see `hs.geometry:scale()` extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 333
##### aspect
Signature `hs.geometry.aspect` Field A number representing the aspect ratio of this rect or size; changing it will reshape the rect/size, keeping its area and center constant extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 352
##### bottomright
Signature `hs.geometry.bottomright` Field Alias for `x2y2` extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 267
##### center
Signature `hs.geometry.center` Field A point representing the geometric center of this rect or the midpoint of this vector2; changing it will move the rect/vector accordingly extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 305
##### h
Signature `hs.geometry.h` Field The height of this rect or size; changing it will keep the rect's x,y corner constant extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 218
##### length
Signature `hs.geometry.length` Field A number representing the length of the diagonal of this rect, or the length of this vector2; changing it will scale the rect/vector - see `hs.geometry:scale()` extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 318
##### string
Signature `hs.geometry.string` Field The `"X,Y/WxH"` string for this hs.geometry object (reduced precision); useful e.g. for logging extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 281
##### table
Signature `hs.geometry.table` Field The `{x=X,y=Y,w=W,h=H}` table for this hs.geometry object; useful e.g. for serialization/deserialization extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 275
##### topleft
Signature `hs.geometry.topleft` Field Alias for `xy` extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 206
##### w
Signature `hs.geometry.w` Field The width of this rect or size; changing it will keep the rect's x,y corner constant extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 214
##### wh
Signature `hs.geometry.wh` Field The size component for this hs.geometry object; setting this to a new size will keep the rect's x,y corner constant extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 251
##### x
Signature `hs.geometry.x` Field The x coordinate for this point or rect's corner; changing it will move the rect but keep the same width and height extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 173
##### x1
Signature `hs.geometry.x1` Field Alias for `x` extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 181
##### x2
Signature `hs.geometry.x2` Field The x coordinate for the second corner of this rect; changing it will affect the rect's width extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 231
##### x2y2
Signature `hs.geometry.x2y2` Field The point denoting the other corner of this hs.geometry object; setting this to a new point will change the rect's width and height extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 263
##### xy
Signature `hs.geometry.xy` Field The point component for this hs.geometry object; setting this to a new point will move the rect but keep the same width and height extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 202
##### y
Signature `hs.geometry.y` Field The y coordinate for this point or rect's corner; changing it will move the rect but keep the same width and height extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 177
##### y1
Signature `hs.geometry.y1` Field Alias for `y` extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 185
##### y2
Signature `hs.geometry.y2` Field The y coordinate for the second corner of this rect; changing it will affect the rect's height extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 235

#### Methods

##### angle
Signature `hs.geometry:angle() -> number` Method Returns the angle between the positive x axis and this vector2 None a number representing the angle in radians extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 516
##### angleTo
Signature `hs.geometry:angleTo(point) -> number` Method Returns the angle between the positive x axis and the vector connecting this point or rect's center to another point or rect's center point - an hs.geometry object, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one; if a rect, uses the rect's center a number representing the angle in radians extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 529
##### distance
Signature `hs.geometry:distance(point) -> number` Method Finds the distance between this point or rect's center and another point or rect's center point - an hs.geometry object, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one; if a rect, uses the rect's center a number indicating the distance extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 542
##### equals
Signature `hs.geometry:equals(other) -> boolean` Method Checks if two geometry objects are equal other - another hs.geometry object, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one `true` if this hs.geometry object perfectly overlaps other, `false` otherwise extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 390
##### fit
Signature `hs.geometry:fit(bounds) -> hs.geometry object` Method Ensure this rect is fully inside `bounds`, by scaling it down if it's larger (preserving its aspect ratio) and moving it if necessary bounds - an hs.geometry rect object, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one, indicating the rect that must fully contain this rect this hs.geometry object for method chaining extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 448
##### floor
Signature `hs.geometry:floor() -> hs.geometry object` Method Truncates all coordinates in this object to integers None this hs.geometry point for method chaining extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 483
##### fromUnitRect
Signature `hs.geometry:fromUnitRect(frame) -> hs.geometry rect` Method Converts a unit rect within a given frame into a rect frame - an hs.geometry rect (with `w` and `h` >0) An hs.geometry rect object extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 672
##### inside
Signature `hs.geometry:inside(rect) -> boolean` Method Checks if this hs.geometry object lies fully inside a given rect rect - an hs.geometry rect, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one `true` if this point/rect lies fully inside the given rect, `false` otherwise extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 570
##### intersect
Signature `hs.geometry:intersect(rect) -> hs.geometry rect` Method Returns the intersection rect between this rect and another rect rect - an hs.geometry rect, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one a new hs.geometry rect If the two rects don't intersect, the result rect will be a "projection" of the second rect onto this rect's closest edge or corner along the x or y axis; the `w` and/or `h` fields in the result rect will be 0. extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 585
##### move
Signature `hs.geometry:move(point) -> hs.geometry object` Method Moves this point/rect point - an hs.geometry object, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one, indicating the x and y displacement to apply this hs.geometry object for method chaining extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 403
##### normalize
Signature `hs.geometry:normalize() -> point` Method Normalizes this vector2 None this hs.geometry point for method chaining extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 468
##### rotateCCW
Signature `hs.geometry:rotateCCW(aroundpoint, ntimes) -> hs.geometry point` Method Rotates a point around another point N times aroundpoint - an hs.geometry point to rotate this point around ntimes - the number of times to rotate, defaults to 1 A new hs.geometry point containing the location of the rotated point extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 695
##### scale
Signature `hs.geometry:scale(size) -> hs.geometry object` Method Scales this vector2/size, or this rect keeping its center constant size - an hs.geometry object, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one, indicating the factors for scaling this rect's width and height; if a number, the rect will be scaled by the same factor in both axes this hs.geometry object for method chaining extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 419
##### toUnitRect
Signature `hs.geometry:toUnitRect(frame) -> hs.geometry unit rect` Method Converts a rect into its unit rect within a given frame frame - an hs.geometry rect (with `w` and `h` >0) An hs.geometry unit rect object The resulting unit rect is always clipped within `frame`'s bounds (via `hs.geometry:intersect()`); if `frame` does not encompass this rect no error will be thrown, but the resulting unit rect won't be a direct match with this rect (i.e. calling `:fromUnitRect(frame)` on it will return a different rect) extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 644
##### type
Signature `hs.geometry:type() -> string` Method Returns the type of an hs.geometry object None a string describing the type of this hs.geometry object, i.e. 'point', 'size', 'rect' or 'unitrect'; `nil` if not a valid object extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 45
##### union
Signature `hs.geometry:union(rect) -> hs.geometry rect` Method Returns the smallest rect that encloses both this rect and another rect rect - an hs.geometry rect, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one a new hs.geometry rect extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 555
##### vector
Signature `hs.geometry:vector(point) -> point` Method Returns the vector2 from this point or rect's center to another point or rect's center point - an hs.geometry object, or a table or string or parameter list to construct one; if a rect, uses the rect's center an hs.geometry point extensions/geometry/geometry.lua line 500