Getting Started with Hammerspoon

What is Hammerspoon?

Hammerspoon is a desktop automation tool for OS X. It bridges various system level APIs into a Lua scripting engine, allowing you to have powerful effects on your system by writing Lua scripts.

What is Lua?

Lua is a simple programming language. If you have never programmed in Lua before, you may want to run through Learn Lua in Y minutes before you begin.


  • Download the latest release of Hammerspoon and drag it to your /Applications folder
  • Run and follow the prompts to enable Accessibility access for the app
  • Click on the Hammerspoon menu bar icon and choose Open Config from the menu
  • Open the Hammerspoon API docs in your browser, to explore the extensions we provide, and the functions they offer

Table of Contents

Hello World

All good programming tutorials start with a Hello World example of some kind, so we will use Hammerspoon’s ability to bind keyboard hotkeys to demonstrate saying Hello World with a simple notification.

In your init.lua place the following:

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "W", function()"Hello World!")

Then save the file, click on the Hammerspoon menubar icon and choose Reload Config. You should now find that pressing ++ctrl+W will display a Hello World notification on your screen.

What is happening here is that we’re telling Hammerspoon to bind an anonymous function to a particular hotkey. The hotkey is specified by a table of modifier keys (, and ctrl in this case) and a normal key (W). An anonymous function is simply one that doesn’t have a name. We could have defined the alert function separately with a name and passed that name to hs.hotkey.bind(), but Lua makes it easy to define the functions inline.

Fancier Hello World

While hs.alert is useful, you might prefer to use the OS X native notifications instead, which you can do by simply modifying the previous example to:

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "W", function(){title="Hammerspoon", informativeText="Hello World"}):send()

Introduction to window movement

One of the most immediately useful things you can do with Hammerspoon is to manipulate the windows on your screen. We’ll start off with a simple example and build up to something more complicated.

Add the following to your init.lua:

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "H", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()

  f.x = f.x - 10

This will now cause ++ctrl+H to make move the currently focused window 10 pixels to the left. You can see that we fetch the currently focused window and then obtain its frame. This describes the location and size of the window. We can then modify the frame and apply it back to the window using setFrame().

A quick aside on colon syntax

You might have noticed that sometimes we’re using dots in function calls, and sometimes we’re using colons. The colon syntax means you’re calling one of that object’s methods. It’s still a function call, but it implicitly passes the object to the method as a self argument.

A quick aside about variable lifecycles

Lua uses Garbage Collection to clean up its memory usage - any object it believes is no longer in use, will be destroyed at some point in the future (exactly when, can be very unpredictable, but it’s based around how active your Lua code is).

This means that a variable which only exists inside a function/loop/etc will be available for garbage collection as soon as the function/loop has finished executing. This includes your init.lua, which is considered to be a single scope that finishes when the final line of code has run.

If you create any objects in your init.lua, you must capture them in a variable, or they will be silently destroyed at some point in the future. For example:

The object returned here, an hs.pathwatcher object, is not being captured, so it is available for Garbage Collection as soon as your init.lua is finished. It will likely not be destroyed for some minutes/hours after, but you will then be confused why your pathwatcher is not running. Instead, this version will survive for until you reload your config, or quit Hammerspoon:

myWatcher =

The myWatcher variable is a global variable, so will never go out of scope.

As a further aside about the lifecycle of variables - in the Console window, each time you type a line and hit enter, a distinct Lua scope is created, executed and finished. This means that local variables created in the Console window will immediately become inaccessible when you hit Enter, because their scope has closed.

More complex window movement

We can build on the simple window movement example to implement a set of keyboard shortcuts that allow us to move a window in all directions, using the nethack movement keys:

y   k   u
h       l
b   j   n

To do this, we simply need to repeat the previous hs.hotkey.bind() call with slightly different frame modifications:

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "Y", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()

  f.x = f.x - 10
  f.y = f.y - 10

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "K", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()

  f.y = f.y - 10

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "U", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()

  f.x = f.x + 10
  f.y = f.y - 10

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "H", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()

  f.x = f.x - 10

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "L", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()

  f.x = f.x + 10

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "B", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()

  f.x = f.x - 10
  f.y = f.y + 10

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "J", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()

  f.y = f.y + 10

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "N", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()

  f.x = f.x + 10
  f.y = f.y + 10

Try it out!

Window sizing

In this section we’ll implement the common window management feature of moving a window so it occupies either the left or right half of the screen, allowing you to tile two windows next to each other for Productivity™.

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "Left", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()
  local screen = win:screen()
  local max = screen:frame()

  f.x = max.x
  f.y = max.y
  f.w = max.w / 2
  f.h = max.h

Here we are binding ++ctrl+ (as in the left cursor key) to a function that will fetch the focused window, then fetch the screen that the focused window is on, fetch the frame of the screen (note that hs.screen.frame() does not include the menubar and dock, see hs.screen.fullFrame() if you need that) and set the frame of the window to occupy the left half of the screen.

To round that out, we’ll add a function to move the window to the right half of the screen:

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "Right", function()
  local win = hs.window.focusedWindow()
  local f = win:frame()
  local screen = win:screen()
  local max = screen:frame()

  f.x = max.x + (max.w / 2)
  f.y = max.y
  f.w = max.w / 2
  f.h = max.h

A good exercise here would be to see if you can now write functions for yourself that bind the Up/Down cursor keys to resizing windows to the top/bottom half of the screen, respectively.

Multi-window layouts

When you want to keep several apps open all the time, and have their windows arranged in a particular way, you can use the hs.layout extension:

    local laptopScreen = "Color LCD"
    local windowLayout = {
        {"Safari",  nil,          laptopScreen, hs.layout.left50,    nil, nil},
        {"Mail",    nil,          laptopScreen, hs.layout.right50,   nil, nil},
        {"iTunes",  "iTunes",     laptopScreen, hs.layout.maximized, nil, nil},
        {"iTunes",  "MiniPlayer", laptopScreen, nil, nil, hs.geometry.rect(0, -48, 400, 48)},

To break this down a little, we start off by creating a variable with the name of the main screen on a Mac. You can find these names with the :name() method on an hs.screen object (e.g. typing hs.screen.allScreens()[1]:name() in the Hammerspoon Console).

We then create a table that describes the layout we want. Each entry in the windowLayout table is another table that selects the windows we are interested in, and specifies their desired position and size.

The first item in the table is the name of an app we wish to affect, and the second item is the title of a window we wish to affect. Either of these items can be nil, but not both. If the application name is nil then we will match the given window title across all applications. If the window title item is nil then we will match all windows of the given application.

The third item is the name of the screen to place the window on, as described above (see the API docs for more ways to specify the screen).

The fourth, fifth and sixth items are used to describe the layout of matched windows, in different ways. Only one of these items can have a value, and that value should be a table containing four items, x, y, w and h (horizontal position, vertical position, width and height, respectively).

The fourth item is a rect that will be given to hs.window:moveToUnit(). The x, y, w, and h values of this rect, are values between 0.0 and 1.0, allowing you to position windows as fractions of the display, without having to be concerned about the precise resolution of the display (e.g. hs.layout.left50 is a pre-defined rect of {x=0, y=0, w=0.5, h=1}).

The fifth item is a rect that will be given to hs.window:setFrame() and should specify the position/size values as pixel positions on the screen, but without the OS menubar and dock taken into account.

The sixth item is similar to the fifth, except it does take the OS menubar and dock into account. This is shown in our example above, which will place the iTunes Mini Player window at the very bottom left of the screen, even if the dock is there. Note that we’re using the hs.geometry.rect() helper function to construct the rect table and that the y value is negative, meaning that the top of the window should start 48 pixels above the bottom of the display.

This may seem like a fairly complex set of options, but it’s worth spending some time learning, as it allows for extremely powerful window layouts, particularly in reaction to system events (such as the number of screens changing when you plug in a monitor, or even just press a particular hotkey to restore sanity to your windows).

Window filters

Wouldn’t it be useful to have hotkeys bound in certain contexts or applications but not others? Organize windows and react to events on the basis of position, size, workflow, or any combination thereof? The extremely versatile hs.window.filter module allows this, enabling you to create complex window groupings and behaviors with filtering rules and event watchers. The best way to demonstrate the power of this module is through examples.

When copying and pasting content from Safari to, all links are jarringly expanded, making the text hard to read:

Thrushes make up the Turdidae, a family <> of passerine <> birds <> that occurs worldwide.

Only the Safari/Messages pair suffers from this and other OS X applications generally copy and paste without surprises. This annoyance is cleanly rectified with the help of a windowfilter:

local function cleanPasteboard()
  local pb = hs.pasteboard.contentTypes()
  local contains = hs.fnutils.contains
  if contains(pb, "") and contains(pb, "public.rtf") then

local messagesWindowFilter ='Messages')
messagesWindowFilter:subscribe(hs.window.filter.windowFocused, cleanPasteboard)

The cleanPasteboard function replaces the Safari ‘rich text’ on the pasteboard with plain text after checking the pasteboard content metadata types. This ensures that copying and pasting of images from Safari still works. An empty windowfilter is created by initializing with false to excludes all windows by default. A Messages ‘appfilter’ is added so that this windowfilter only observes Messages windows. We then subscribe to the windowfilter so that cleanPasteboard is called each time a Messages window gains focus. You can similarly enable/disable custom hotkeys when certain windows or applications have focus.

Windowfilters are dynamic, filtering automatically in the background according to the constraints set. By initializing a windowfilter with a predicate function, you can create arbitrarily complex filtering rules:

local wf =
    local fw = hs.window.focusedWindow()
    return (
      win:isStandard() and
      win:application() == fw:application() and
      win:screen() == fw:screen()

This windowfilter contains all standard (unhidden, non-modal) windows that share both the application and screen of the currently focused window. The windowfilter continually updates so that the currently focused window determines the set of windows in play. This can be used to cycle through focused application windows on the current screen using hs.window.switcher or your own custom cycler.

Simple configuration reloading

You may have noticed that while you’re editing the config, it’s a little bit annoying to have to keep choosing the Reload Config menu item every time you make a change. We can fix that by adding a keyboard shortcut to reload the config:

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, "R", function()
end)"Config loaded")

We have now bound +++R to a function that will reload the config and display a simple alert banner on the screen for a couple of seconds.

One important detail to call out here is that hs.reload() destroys the current Lua interpreter and creates a new one. If we had any code after hs.reload() in this function, it would not be called.

Fancy configuration reloading

So we can now manually force a reload, but why should we even have to do that when the computer could do it for us‽

The following snippet introduces another new extension, pathwatcher which will allow us to automatically reload the config whenever the file changes:

function reloadConfig(files)
    doReload = false
    for _,file in pairs(files) do
        if file:sub(-4) == ".lua" then
            doReload = true
    if doReload then
myWatcher ="HOME") .. "/.hammerspoon/", reloadConfig):start()"Config loaded")

There are several things worth breaking down about this example. Firstly, we’re using a Lua function called os.getenv() to fetch the HOME variable from your system’s environment. This will tell us where your home directory is. We then use Lua’s .. operator to join that string to the part of the config file’s path that we do know, the /.hammerspoon/ part. This gives us the full path of Hammerspoon’s configuration directory.

We then create a new path watcher using this path, and tell it to call our reloadConfig function whenever something changes in the .hammerspoon directory. We then immediately call start() on the path watcher object, so it begins its work.

In this example we’ve implemented the config reloading function as a separate, named function, which we pass as an argument to It’s entirely up to you whether you pass around named functions, or use anonymous ones in-line.

This function accepts a single argument, which is a table containing all the names of files that have been modifier. It iterates over that list and checks each file to see if it ends with .lua. If any Lua files have been changed, it then tells Hammerspoon to destroy the current Lua setup and reload its configuration files.

Interacting with application menus

Sometimes the only way to automate something is to interact with the GUI of an application, which is not ideal, but is often necessary to get something done.

To illustrate this, we’re going to build a hotkey that cycles Safari between multiple User Agent strings (i.e. how it identifies itself to web servers). To do this, you’ll need to have the Safari Develop menu enabled, which you can do by ticking Show Develop menu in menu bar in Safari→Preferences→Advanced.

function cycle_safari_agents()
    local safari = hs.appfinder.appFromName("Safari")

    local str_default = {"Develop", "User Agent", "Default (Automatically Chosen)"}
    local str_ie10 = {"Develop", "User Agent", "Internet Explorer 10.0"}
    local str_chrome = {"Develop", "User Agent", "Google Chrome — Windows"}

    local default = safari:findMenuItem(str_default)
    local ie10 = safari:findMenuItem(str_ie10)
    local chrome = safari:findMenuItem(str_chrome)

    if (default and default["ticked"]) then
    if (ie10 and ie10["ticked"]) then
    if (chrome and chrome["ticked"]) then
hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt", "ctrl"}, '7', cycle_safari_agents)

What we are doing here is first launching Safari or bringing it to the front if it is already running. This is an important step in any menu interaction - menus for apps that are not currently focused, will usually be disabled.

We then get a reference to Safari itself using hs.appfinder.appFromName(). Using this object we can search the available menu items and interact with them. Specifically, we are looking for the current state of three of the User Agent strings in Develop→User Agent. We then check to see which of them is ticked, and then select the next one.

Thus, pressing +++7 repeatedly will cycle between the default user agent string, an IE10 user agent, and a Chrome user agent. Each time, we display a simple on-screen alert with the name of the user agent we have cycled to.

Creating a simple menubar item

Lots of Mac utilities place a small icon in the system menubar to display their status and let you interact with them. We’re going to use two of Hammerspoon’s extensions to whip up a very simple replacement for the popular utility Caffeine.

caffeine =
function setCaffeineDisplay(state)
    if state then

function caffeineClicked()

if caffeine then

This code snippet will create a menubar item that displays either the text SLEEPY if your machine is allowed to go to sleep when you’re not using it, or AWAKE if it will refuse to sleep. The hs.caffeine extension provides the ability to prevent the display from sleeping, but hs.menubar is providing the menubar item.

In this case we create the menubar item and connect a callback (in this case caffeineClicked()) to click events on the menubar item. You can also use icons instead of text, by placing small image files in ~/.hammerspoon/ and using the :setIcon() method on your menubar object. See the full API docs for hs.menubar for more information about this.

Reacting to application events

Using the hs.application.watcher callback we can react to various application level events, such as applications being launched, exiting, hiding, and activating.

We can demonstrate this by creating a very simple callback which will make sure that when you activate the Finder application, all of its windows will be brought to the front of the display.

function applicationWatcher(appName, eventType, appObject)
    if (eventType == hs.application.watcher.activated) then
        if (appName == "Finder") then
            -- Bring all Finder windows forward when one gets activated
            appObject:selectMenuItem({"Window", "Bring All to Front"})
appWatcher =

To start with, we define a callback function which accepts three parameters and in it we check if the type of event that triggers the function, is an application being activated. Then we check if the application being activated is Finder. If it is, we select its menu item to bring all of its windows to the front.

We then create an application watcher object that will call our function, and tell it to start.

Note that we kept a reference to the watcher object, rather than simply calling The reason for this is so that we can call :stop() on the watcher later if we need to (for example in a function that reloads our config - see the Fancy Config Reloading example for information on how to reload Hammerspoon’s configuration automatically).

Reacting to wifi events

If you use a MacBook then you probably have a WiFi network at home. It’s very simple with Hammerspoon to trigger events when you are either arriving home and joining your WiFi network, or departing home and leaving the network. In this case we’ll do something simple and adjust the audio volume of the MacBook such that it’s at zero when you’re away from home (protecting you from the shame of opening your MacBook in a coffee shop and blaring out the music you had playing at home!)

wifiWatcher = nil
homeSSID = "MyHomeNetwork"
lastSSID = hs.wifi.currentNetwork()

function ssidChangedCallback()
    newSSID = hs.wifi.currentNetwork()

    if newSSID == homeSSID and lastSSID ~= homeSSID then
        -- We just joined our home WiFi network
    elseif newSSID ~= homeSSID and lastSSID == homeSSID then
        -- We just departed our home WiFi network

    lastSSID = newSSID

wifiWatcher =

Here we have created a callback function that compares the current WiFi network’s name to the previous network’s name and examines whether we have moved from our pre-defined home network to something else, or vice versa, and then uses hs.audiodevice to adjust the system volume.

Reacting to USB events

If you have a piece of USB hardware that you want to be able to react to, hs.usb.watcher is the extension for you. In the example below, we’ll automatically start the software for a scanner when it is plugged in, and then kill the software when the scanner is unplugged.

usbWatcher = nil

function usbDeviceCallback(data)
    if (data["productName"] == "ScanSnap S1300i") then
        if (data["eventType"] == "added") then
            hs.application.launchOrFocus("ScanSnap Manager")
        elseif (data["eventType"] == "removed") then
            app = hs.appfinder.appFromName("ScanSnap Manager")

usbWatcher =

Defeating paste blocking

You may have noticed that some programs and websites try very hard to stop you from pasting in your password. They seem to think it makes them more secure, but in the age of strongly encrypted password managers, this is, of course, nonsense.

Fortunately, we can route around their damage by emitting fake keyboard events to type the contents of the clipboard:

hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd", "alt"}, "V", function() hs.eventtap.keyStrokes(hs.pasteboard.getContents()) end)

Running AppleScript

Sometimes the automation you need is locked away in an application, which seems like it would be impossible to control from Hammerspoon, except that many applications expose their functionality via AppleScript, which Hammerspoon can execute for you:

ok,result = hs.applescript('tell Application "iTunes" to artist of the current track as string')

This will go and ask iTunes for the artist of the track it is currently playing, and then display that on-screen using hs.alert.

However, before you rush out and start writing lots of iTunes related AppleScript, check out the next entry in this guide.

Controlling iTunes/Spotify

Using hs.itunes and hs.spotify we can interrogate/control various aspects of iTunes and Spotify, for example, if you were to need to switch between one app and the other:


Drawing on the screen

Sometimes you just cannot find your mouse pointer. You’re sure you left it somewhere, but it’s hiding on one of your monitors and wiggling the mouse isn’t helping you to spot it. Fortunately, we can interrogate and control the mouse pointer, and we can draw things on the screen, which means we can do something like this:

mouseCircle = nil
mouseCircleTimer = nil

function mouseHighlight()
    -- Delete an existing highlight if it exists
    if mouseCircle then
        if mouseCircleTimer then
    -- Get the current co-ordinates of the mouse pointer
    mousepoint = hs.mouse.getAbsolutePosition()
    -- Prepare a big red circle around the mouse pointer
    mouseCircle =, mousepoint.y-40, 80, 80))

    -- Set a timer to delete the circle after 3 seconds
    mouseCircleTimer = hs.timer.doAfter(3, function() mouseCircle:delete() end)
hs.hotkey.bind({"cmd","alt","shift"}, "D", mouseHighlight)

There are several different types of drawing object currently supported - lines, circles, boxes, text and images. Different drawing types can have different properties, which are all fully documented in the API documentation.

Drawing objects can be placed either on top of all other windows, or behind desktop icons - this makes them useful for displaying contextual overlays on top of the screen (such as this mouse finding example), and more permanent information displays behind all the windows (e.g. the kinds of status information people use GeekTool for).

Sending iMessage/SMS messages

Rather than explain what this is doing, see if you can figure it out. You may recognise the wifi parts from Reacting to wifi events:

coffeeShopWifi = "Baristartisan_Guest"
lastSSID = hs.wifi.currentNetwork()
wifiWatcher = nil

function ssidChanged()
    newSSID = hs.wifi.currentNetwork()

    if newSSID == coffeeShopWifi and lastSSID ~= coffeeShopWifi then
        -- We have arrived at the coffee shop
        hs.messages.iMessage("", "Hey! I'm at Baristartisan's, come join me!")
        hs.messages.SMS("+1234567890", "Hey, you don't have an iPhone, but you should still come for a coffee")

wifiWatcher =

As you doubtless noticed, this will send two messages to people whenever your Mac arrives at your favourite trendy coffee shop. You’ll need to have OS X’s Messages app configured and working for sending both iMessages and SMS (the latter via an iPhone using SMS Relay) for this to work.

Automating Hammerspoon with URLs

Sometimes you need to automate your automation tools, and Hammerspoon is automatable in several ways. The first way we’ll cover here is with URLs. Specifically, URLs that begin with hammerspoon://. Given this simple snippet:

hs.urlevent.bind("someAlert", function(eventName, params)"Received someAlert")

We have now bound a URL event handler for an event named someAlert that will show a little on-screen text alert. To trigger this event, in a Terminal, run open -g hammerspoon://someAlert. Many applications have the ability to open URLs, so this becomes a very simple way to automate Hammerspoon into taking some action. See the next section for a more concrete (and complex) example of this. Note that the -g option for open causes the URL to be opened in the background, so as to avoid opening Hammerspoon’s Console Window, or giving it keyboard focus.

Advanced automation of Hammerspoon with Karabiner and URLs

  • NOTE: Karabiner does not currently work in macOS Sierra. Its author is working on a new version.

In our first example we used hs.hotkey to bind a keyboard shortcut to a Lua function, one of the most useful things that Hammerspoon can do. However, those hotkeys are performed using the Carbon API in OS X, which is quite high level in terms of its understanding of keyboard events - for example, it cannot differentiate between which of the keys has been pressed (since there are two, one on the left of the keyboard, one on the right), nor can it bind hotkeys that involve the Fn key.

One application that does understand these keyboard events at a very low level, is Karabiner, which hooks into the OS X kernel to read raw events coming from the keyboard. Usually it is used to remap these key events to other key events (i.e. changing the behaviour of a key on your keyboard), however, it can also translate low level key events into higher level system actions, such as executing a terminal command, or opening a URL.

Consequently, we can combine Karabiner and Hammerspoon to perform some very powerful and flexible hotkey binding. In this example, we’re going to bind some keyboard modifiers from the right hand side of the keyboard, to a Lua function in Hammerspoon.

Firstly, install Karabiner and open its configuration app In the Misc & Uninstall tab, click Open private.xml. This will display a Finder window showing a file called private.xml. Right click on that file and choose Open With → You will now see TextEdit open, showing an XML document. If you’ve never used Karabiner before, it will contain:

<?xml version="1.0"?>

In the <root> section, add the following:

    <name>Hammerspoon test1</name>
      KeyCode::CURSOR_RIGHT, ModifierFlag::COMMAND_R | ModifierFlag::OPTION_R,

Breaking this down, we first define a URL for Karabiner to emit, using the <vkopenurldef> section. It’s important to note here that the <name> attribute must start with KeyCode::VK_OPEN_URL and should not contain any spaces. The <background/> option means that Karabiner will open the URL without activating Hammerspoon. There are almost no reasons to ever want to pass focus to Hammerspoon, so it is recommended you always use this option.

Having defined the URL as a Virtual Keycode, we then tell Karabiner to listen for the right hand and the right hand and the cursor key. If those keys are pressed, it will open URL hammerspoon://test1?someParam=hello.

Save the private.xml document and close TextEdit. Now, in Karabiner, switch back to the Change Key tab and click Reload XML. Assuming you get no errors, tick the box next to Hammerspoon test1 and the remapping is configured.

In your Hammerspoon init.lua, add the following:

hs.urlevent.bind("test1", function(eventName, params)
  if params["someParam"] then["someParam"])

You now have a Lua function in Hammerspoon that will be triggered if you press the right ⌘ + right ⌥ + .


This guide owes a huge debt to Joseph Holsten and his Mjolnir guide